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Full text of "Solar project description for Sir Galahad Company single family residence, Virginia Beach, Virginia"

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SOLAR 1028-79/50 



Solar Project 
Description 




SIR GALAHAD COMPANY 

SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCE 

Virginia Beach, Virginia 

July 20, 1979 




U.S. Department of Energy 

National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process 
disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



This report has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. 



Available from the National Technical Information Service, U. S. Department of 
Commerce, Springfield, Virginia 22161. 



Price: Paper Copy $5.25 
Microfiche $3.00 



SOLAR/1028-79/50 

Distribution Category UC-59 



SOLAR PROJECT DESCRIPTION 

FOR 

SIR GALAHAD COMPANY 

SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCE - VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA 



Department of Housing and Urban Development 

Under Contract Number 

H-2372 

David Moore 
Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Program Manager 

By 

The Boeing Company 
David Beers, Program Manager 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

I. FOREWORD I 

II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2 

III. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION 4 

IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 7 

A. General Overview 7 

B. Collector Subsystem 8 

C. Storage Subsystem 15 

D. Energy-to-Load Subsystem 24 

E. Auxiliary Subsystem 28 

F. Modes of Operation 31 

V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION 34 

A. The National Solar Data Network 34 

B. On-Site Instrumentation 37 

VI. COST DATA 41 

VII. APPENDIX 42 

A. Glossary 42 

B. Legend for Solar System Schematics 47 



n 



LIST OF FIGURES 

Figure Title Page 

lll-l Site Plan 4 

IV-A- 1 General Overview 7 

IV-B- 1 Collector Subsystem 8 

IV-B-2 Solar Collector 10 

IV-C- 1 Storage Subsystem 15 

IV-D- 1 Energy-to-Load Subsystem 24 

IV-E- 1 Auxiliary Subsystem 28 

IV-F- 1 Controls Diagram 31 

V-A- 1 The National Solar Data Network 35 

V-A-2 Data Flow Path for the National Solar Data Network 36 

V-B- 1 Sensor and Control Diagram 40 



m 



NATIONAL SOLAR DATA PROGRAM REPORTS 

Reports prepared for the National Solar Data Program are numbered under a 
specific format. For example, this report for the Sir Galahad Company solar 
demonstration project. Sir Galahad project site is designated as SOLAR/ 1 028- 
79/50. The elements of this designation are explained in the following illustration: 



SOLAR/ 1 028-79/50 



Prepared for the 
National Solar -^- 

Data Program 



Demonstration Site ~^- 
Number 



Report Type 
■► Designation 



Year 



Demonstration Site Number: Each project has its own discrete number - 
through 1999 for residential sites and 2000 through 2999' for commercial sites. 



Report Type Designation: 

This number identifies the type of report, e^., 



o 
o 



Monthly Performance Reports — designated by the numbers 01 

(for January) through 1 2 (for December); 

Solar Energy System Performance Evaluations — designated by 

the number I h; 

Solar Project Descriptions — designated by the number 50; 

Solar Project Cost Reports — designated by the number 60. 



These reports are disseminated through the U.S. Department of Energy, Technical 
Information Center, P.O. Box 62, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830. 



IV 



I. FOREWORD 

The National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling is being conducted by the 
Department of Energy (DOE) as mandated by the Solar Heating and Cooling 
Demonstration Act of 1974. The Department of Housing & Urban Development is 
responsible to DOE for the Solar Residential Demonstration Program. The overall 
goal of the Federal Demonstration Program is to assist in the establishment of a 
viable solar industry and to achieve a substantial reduction in fossil fuel use 
through widespread use of solar heating and cooling applications. An analysis and 
synthesis of the information gathered through this program will be disseminated in 
site-specific reports and summary documents as products of the National Solar 
Data Program. These reports will cover topics such as: 

o Solar Project Description. 

o Operational Experience. 

o System Performance Evaluation. 

o Monthly Performance Reports. 

Information contained herein for this Solar Project Description report has been 
extracted from data collected during site visits and from reference documents such 
as the project proposal, designer specifications, grantee submittals, manufacturer 
literature, photographs, specific "as-built" data and other project documentation 
available. The remaining reports in this series will utilize the Solar Project 
Description for supporting reference. 



II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 

The following are the major solar energy descriptors: 

o Collector Type - Liquid 

o Freeze Protection - Yes, Anti-freeze, 30% Glycol - 70% Water 

o Application - Space heating, domestic hot water 

o Storage - Water, 1500 gallon tank 

o New or Retrofit - New 

o Performance Evaluation Instrumentation - Yes 

o Site-Specific Features - Heat pump and electric heat strips for 

auxiliary heating 

The Sir Galahad Company solar energy system is installed in a single story, 1,604 
square-foot, conditioned area, three bedroom single family dwelling located in 
Virginia Beach, Virginia. The system is designed to provide solar energy for spaco 
heating, and domestic hot water heating. 

Solar energy is collected by an array of double glazed flat plate collectors with a 
gross area of 640 square feet. The collector array is mounted on the roof of the 
house and faces south at an angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal to optimize solar 
energy collection. 

Solar energy is transferred from the collector array to a 1,500 gallon above ground 
storage tank. Water is used as the heat collection, transfer and storage medium. 
Freeze protection is provided by means of circulation of hot water from storage 
through the collectors. Anti-freeze additive is required. 

Space heating demands are met by circulating hot water from storage through air 
heating coils in an air distribution system located in the house. Auxiliary space 
heating is provided by a heat pump and electric heater strips. 



Solar energy for preheating domestic hot water is provided by circulating water 
from the solar storage tank through a water to water heat exchanger located solar 
storage tank. 

The dwelling has been fully instrumented for performance evaluation since October 
1978 and the data is integrated into the National Solar Data Network. 

Original cost estimates for provisioning and installation of the solar system are 
given in section VI of this report. However, the final solar system cost and the 
cost of its instrumentation are not included in this report. 



III. SITE AND BUILDING DESCRIPTION 




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Figure lll-l. Site Plan 



Site Description (See Figure III- 1) 
o Topography - Flat 
o Latitude - 37° F 
o Longitude - 76 F 
o Elevation - 26 feet 
o Annual degree days 

o Heating - 3542 

o Data location - Norfolk, Virginia 

o Data reference - Local Climatological Data Annual 

Summaries , Department of Commerce, National Oceanographic 
and Atmospheric Administration 

o Average horizontal insolation 

o January - 460 Btu/ft^/day 

o July- 1,465 Btu/ft 2 /day 

o Data location - Norfolk, Virginia 

o Data reference - U. S. Weather Bureau 

o Shading 

o Heating season - None 

o Cooling season - None 

Building Description 

o Occupancy 

o Single family 

o Three bedroom, living/dining room, family room, kitchen tank 

shed, I 3/4 bathrooms and attached garage. 

o Total area - Approximately 1844 square feet 

o Solar conditioned area - 1604 square feet 

o Height - One story 



Mechanical System 
o Heating 

o Solar - Liquid active 

o Auxiliary - Heat pump with electric strips 

o Distribution - Hot air ducting 

o Cooling (Non-Solar) Absorption 

o Type - Heat Pump 

o Distribution - Utilizes heating system air distribution 

Domestic Hot Water 

o Daily water demand - 82 gallons 

o Solar - Heat exchanger in domestic water tank for preheating water by 

solar energy 

o Auxiliary - Electric hot water 



IV. SOLAR SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 



A. General Overview 



This residential solar demonstration project (Sir Galahad Company Grant H-2470) 
located at Virginia Beach, Virginia is a liquid active system utilized for heating, 
and domestic hot water. A heat pump is provided for supplementing space heating. 

Subsequent sections describe the collector, storage, energy-to-load, and auxiliary 
subsystem. Specific details of the operating modes and controls are described in 
the final section. Figure IV-A-I is a system schematic diagram. 



COLLECTOR 
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Figure IV-A- I . General Overview 



B. Collector Subsystem (See Figure IV-B-I) 




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Figure IV-B-I. Collector Subsystem 



Collector array system consists of 40 single glazed selective surface, flat plate 
collector panels. Freeze protection is provided by a 30% ethylene-glycol water 
mixture in the collector and a heat exchanger is external to the storage tank. 



8 



Collector (COL- 1) (See Figure IV-B-2) 
o Manufacturer - Revere 

o Model name/number - Sun Roof 

o Type - Liquid flat plate, tube, and plate 

o Location - Roof 
o Orientation - Fixed, South 
o Tilt angle - 45° from horizontal 
o Number of collector panels - 40 
o Array configuration - Two rows of 20 panels 

o Collector 

o Total gross area of array - 640 sq. ft. 

o Net aperture area - 584 sq. ft. 

o Weight per panel, empty - 100 lbs 

o Weight per panel, full - 103 lbs 

o Weight of filled array and support structure - 4520 lbs. 

o Panel length - 96.0 inches 

o Panel width - 24.0 inches 

o Frame depth - 2.5 inches 

o Standoff height - inches 

o Glazing (cover plate) 

o Number of cover plates - One 

o Cover plate 

o Manufacturer - Varies 

o Material - Low iron tempered glass 

o Thickness -0.125 inch 

o Coating - None 




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o Optical properties (solar region) (infrared region) 

Transmittance 91% 91% 

Reflectance 6% 6% 

Emittance - 93% 

o Edge or surface treatment, other than coating - Mechanically ground 

o Coating on cover plate material - None 

Absorber 

o Manufacturer - Revere 

o Model - Sun Roof 

o Material - Copper, laminated to plywood 

o Substrate material dimension 

Thickness - 0.010 inch 
Length - 96.0 inches 
Width - 24.0 inches 

Coating 

o Manufacturer - 3 M 

o Model Name/Number - Nextel Black Velvet 

o Application method - Paint, sprayed 

o Absorptance - 96% solar region; 95% infrared 

o Reflectance - 4% solar region; 5% infrared 

o Emittance - 96% 

Heat transfer fluid passages 

o Location - On absorber 

o Pattern - Parallel 

o Materials - Copper 

o Wall thickness - 0.032 inch 

o Internal diameter - 0.595 inch 



o Maximum operating conditions 

Temperature - 296° p 

Pressure - 65 psi 
o Fluid passage bond to substrate - Copper flake adhesive 

o Protective coating inside fluid passage - None 

Insulation 
o Layer one - sides 

Manufacturer - Varies 

Product Name/Number - Fiberglass 

Material - Rigid urethene 

Thermal resistance -R-I9 
o Layer one - back 

Manufacturer - Varies 

Product Name/Number - Fiberglass 

Material - Glass fiber 

Thermal resistance - R- I 9 

Gaskets and sealants 

o Inner cover - Dura Ribbon 

o Outer cover - Dura Ribbon 

o Backing plate - Dura Ribbon 

o Penetrations - Dura Ribbon 

Frame 

o Manufacturer - Roof of the residence 



12 



o Desiccant - None 

o Freeze protection - Antifreeze 

o Overheating protection - Relief valve 

o Passive collector heat transfer control - None 

Collector performance 

o Method of evaluation - ASHRAE (t. + wi 

1 'a"'t 

o y intercept - 0.68° F ft 2 hr/Btu 

o Slope -<F R U L ) 1.13 

o Point Number 12 3 4 

o n = Collector thermal efficiency (%) - 57.8 46.7 34.6 22.2 

o t. = collector inlet temperature (°F) - 110 134 170 200 



o 
o 



t = ambient air temperature ( F) - 77 74 71 65 

a 

I. = insolation intensity Btu/hr ft - 349 318 335 333 



o ASHRAE (t.-t )/l. - 0.09 0.19 0.30 0.41 

i a t 

o Test flow rate - 60.0 Ib/hr 

o Test collector area 

Gross - 16.0 sq.ft. 

Net - 14.6 sq.ft. 
o Fluid specific heat - 1 .00 Blu/lb° f 

o Test fluid medium - Water 



13 



Liquid Circulation Loop No. I (COL- I to HX- I ) 

o Design maximum operating temperature - I 80 F 

o Heating design liquid flow - 15 gpm 

o Cooling design liquid flow - 

o Provision for expansion - Yes, expansion tank 

o Heat transfer medium - Water 

o Specific heat - 0.98 Btu/lb/° F 

o Density - 61 lb/ft 3 

o Boiling point - 2 I 2° F 

o Freezing point - 32 

o Maximum recommended use temperature - 220 F 

o Toxicity - Non-potable 

o pH factor - 

o Chemical feeder to maintain pH factor - No 

o Inhibitor - No 

o Loop Description - Collector to Storage 

o Piping 

o Rigid - Copper, type M 

o Piping insulation - Cellular rubber 

o Location - Above grade 

o Filters - Y strainer 



14 



C. Storage Subsystem (See Figure IV-C-I) 




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STORAGE 



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Figure IV-C-I. Storage Subsystem 



Solar energy storage is provided by a 1,500 gallon underground storage tank. This 
tank is made of steel and measures 5 feet in diameter, 9'0" in length and is covered 
with vapor barrier over fiberglass insulation. Water is heated by HX-I and 
circulated by pump, P-2, to storage tank (TSU- I) and to the building heating unit 
(HX-2) which is located in the air distribution system. 



15 



Thermal Storage Unit (TSU-I) 
o Container 

o Total storage volume - 200 cu. ft. (1500 gal) 

Length - 9.0' 
Diameter - 5.3' 
o Storage medium 

o Heating design temperature - 190° F maximum 

o Medium - Water (100%) 

o Specific heat - 1.00 Btu/lb/° F 

o Density - 62 lb/ft 3 

o Boiling point - 212° F 

o Freezing point - 32° F 

o Recommended medium temperature - 190° F 

o Toxicity - Potable 

o pH Factor - 7.0 

o Inhibitor - No 

o Container construction 

o Type - Steel 

o Location - Shed adjoining building 

o Auxiliary heaters - No 

o Insulation - Glass, fiber 

o Exterior finish - Foil 

o Filters - Strainer at each pump 

o Thermal Resistance - R-l I 



16 



Liquid Circulation Loop No. 2 (TSU-I to HX- I ) 

o Design operating temperature - 180° F 

o Heating design liquid flow - 15 gpm 

o Heat transfer medium 

o Medium - 100% Water 

o Specific heat - 1 .00 Btu/lb°F 

o Density - 62 lb/ft 3 

o Boiling point - 212 F 

o Freezing point - 32 F 

o Maximum recommended use temperature - 190° F 

o Toxicity - Potable 

o pH factor - 

o Chemical feeder - No 

o Inhibitor - No 

o Piping 

Rigid - Copper 
Insulation - Cellular rubber 
Location - Above grade 
o Circulator pump (P-2), TSU- l-to-HX- I 

o Manufacturer - Grundfos 

o Model Name/Number - UP 2664 

o Type - Centrifugal 

o Maximum operating conditions 

Dynamic pressure - 
Temperature - 230° F 



17 



o Material exposed to heat transfer fluid - Copper 

o Motor size - 0.08 bhp, I 15 V, single phase, 60 Hz 

o Maximum motor speed - 

o Drive - Direct 

o Speed Single 
o Pump speed - 

o Circulating volume - Low head mode - 31 gpm 

o Operating head (dynamic) - Low head mode - 9 psi 

o Motor operation - 
o Distribution Valve (V-2) 
o Function - Drain 
o Operation - Manual 
o Type - Globe 

o Materials exposed to heat transfer fluid - 
Control Mode Selector (CMS- 1) 
o Modes controlled 

o Collector to storage - ON - 

o Storage to space - ON - below I 10° p 

o Storage to space - OFF - above I 10° F 
o HX- 1 (Col lector heated HX- 1 ) 

ON - +20° F 

OFF - +20° F 
o Sensors (SN-02 and (SN-03) 



18 



Liquid Circulation Loop No. 2 (HX- I to HX-2) 

o Design maximum operation temperature - 180° F 

o Heating design liquid flow - 15 gpm 

o Heat transfer medium 

o Medium - 100% Water 

o Specific heat - 1.00 Btu/lb/° F 

o Boiling point - 2 I 2° F 

o Freezing point - 32° F 

o Maximum recommended use temperature - 190° F 

o Toxicity - Potable 

o pH factor - 7.0 

o Chemical feeder to maintain pH factor - None 

o Inhibitor - No 

o Piping 

o Rigid - Copper, type M 

o Insulation - Cellular rubber 

o Location - Above grade 

o Filters - Y strainers 
Liquid Circulation Loop No. 3 (TSU-I to HX-3, DHW) 

o Design maximum operation temperature - 180° F 
o Heating design liquid flow - 2 gpm 

o Heat transfer medium 

o Medium - 100% Water 

o Density - 62 lb/ft 3 

o Specific heat - 1. 00Btu/lb/°F 



\9 



o Boiling point - 2 12° F 

o Freezing point - 32° F 

o Maximum recommended use temperature - 190° F 

o Toxicity - Potable 

o pH factor - 7.0 

o Chemical feeder to maintain pH factor - None 

o Inhibitor - None 

Piping 

o Rigid - Copper, type M 

o Insulation - Cellular foam 

o Location - Above grade 

o Filters - None 

Circulator pump (P-3), TSU-l-to-HX-3 

o Manufacturer - Grundfos 

o Model Name/Number - UPS 2042 

o Type - Centrifugal 

o Maximum operating conditions 

Dynamic pressure - 

Temperature - 230° p 

o Material exposed to heat transfer fluid - Copper 

o Circulating volume - Low head mode - 24 gpm 

o Operating head (dynamic) - Low head mode - 6 psi 

o Motor operation - 0.5 bhp 

Heat Exchanger (HX-3) 

o Manufacturer - Manufacturer on site 

o Type of exchanger - Liquid to liquid 

o Type of flow - Cross 



20 



o Heat exchanger design - Tube around tank 

o Number of separations - Double 

o Convection 

Side one - Forced 

Side two - Natural 

o Circulation loop 

Side one - 3 

Side two - 5 
o Piping - Copper, type M 

o Flow rate 

Side one - 2 gpm 

Side two - 80 gal/day 
o Related pump - P-3 

o Distribution Valve (V-2)and (V-7) 
o Function - ON-OFF 
o Operation - Manual 

o Type - Gate 
o Distribution Valve (V-6) 

o Manufacturer - 

o Model Name/Number - 

o Function - Flow switching 

o Operation - Automatic 

o Type - 3-way diverting 

Air Circulation Loop No. 4 (HX-2 to Space Heating) 
o Location - Above grade 



o Blower - (BL-I) squirrel cage fan, centrifugal 

o Heat Exchanger (HX-2) 

o Type of flow - Cross 

o Heat exchanger design - Fin coil 

o Type of exchanger - Air-to-liquid 

o Convection 

Air side - Forced 

Liquid side - Forced 

Effectiveness - 

Material - Copper 
o Part of circulation loop (s) - 2 and k 

o Design flow quantity 

Air side - I 2 to 1500 cfm 

Liquid side - 15 gpm 
o Temperature 

Air side - Less than 68° p [jg 

Liquid side - Above I 10° F DB 
o Control Mode Selector (CMS-2) 

o Auxiliary to space 

ON - Less than 66° p (SN-03) 
OFF - Greater than 68° F (SN-03) 

o ERH Assist to HPS-I 

ON - Less than 36° F (SN-04) 
OFF - Greater than 36° F (SN-04 
o Sensor 

o Type - Thermostat 



22 



Circulation Loop No. 5 (DHW-I to Supply) 
o Flow rate - 80 gal per day 

o Heat transfer medium 

o Medium - lOCT^water 

o Specific heat - 1.00 Btu/lb/°F 

o Density - 62 lb/ft 3 

o Boiling point - 2 I 2 F 

o Freezing point - 32 F 

o Maximum recommended use temperature - I 90 F 

o Toxicity - Potable 

o pH factor - 

o Chemical feeder - No 

o Inhibitor - No 

o Piping 

o Rigid - 

o Insulation - 

o Location - 

o Distribution Valve (V-3) 

o Function - ON-OFF 

o Operation - Manual 

o Type - Gate 

o Materials exposed to heat transfer fluid - 



23 



E. Energy to Load Subsystem (See Figure IV-D-I) 




SUBSYSTEM 



Figure IV-D-I. Energy-to-Load Subsystem 



Solar energy stored in the 1500 gallon storage tank is used to meet the space 
heating demands by circulating it through heating coils in the air distribution 
system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by a heat pump (HPS-I) with 
supplemental electric strips. 



2k 



Circulator pump (P- I ) 

o Manufacturer - Grundfos 

o Model Name/Number - UP 2664 

o Type - Centrifugal 

o Maximum operating conditions 

Dynamic pressure - 

Temperature - 230° F 

o Material exposed to heat transfer fluid - Steel body, stainless 

steel impeller and copper piping 

o Motor size - 

o Maximum motor speed - 

o Drive - 

o Speed - 

o Pump speed - 

o Circulaling volume - Low head mode - 31 gpm 

o Operating head (dynamic) - Low head mode - 9 psi 

o Motor operation - 0.08 bhp 

Heat exchanger (HX-I) 

o Manufacturer - Bell & Gossett 

o Model Name/Number - STH 630-4 

o Type - Liquid-to-liguid 

o Number of fans - 

o Type of flow - Counter 

o Design - 4 pass tube, 4 pass shell 

Separation - Single 

External exposed surface area - 40.8 sq. ft. 

Convection - Forced 



25 



o MaximunYVnanufactureres rated 

Side One Side Two 

Temperature - 300°F 300° F 

Pressure- 1 50 psi 225 psi 

o Material - Copper, steel, cast iron body, brass tube hubs 

o Capacity- I 5 gpm 
o Distribution Valve (V- 1) 

o Manufacturer 

o Function - Anit-freeze loop I 

o Operation - ON-OFF, Manual 

o Type - Gate 

o Material exposed to heat transfer fluid - 

o Distribution Valve (V-4) 

o Manufacturer - 

o Model Name/Number - 

o Function - Drain (Anti-freeze Loop I) ON-OFF 

o Operation - Manual 

o Type - Globe 

o Materials exposed to heat transfer fluid - 
Control Mode Selector (CMS- 1) 
o Modes controlled 

o Collector to storage - Yes 

o Storage to space - Yes 

o Storage to hot water - Yes 

o Sensors (SN- 1) and (SN-2) 

o Manufacturer - 

o Type - Temperature, Thermister 



26 



o Fail Safe Control (FC-I) 
o Manufacturer - 
o Product Name/Number - 

o Type - Pressure relief valve 

o Flow Control (FC-2) 
o Manufacturer - 

o Type - Check valve 



27 



V E. Auxiliary Subsystems (See Figure IV-E-I) 



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Figure IV-E-I. Auxiliary-to-Load Subsystem 



The auxiliary subsystems, domestic hot water tank, heat pump (HPS-I) and Blower 
(BL-I) mentioned in the foregoing Energy to Load Subsystem have been grouped in 
this section for descriptive purposes, their function and purpose have been 
previously described. 



28 



Auxiliary Loads (DHW- I . BL- I , and HPS- I ) 

o Domestic Water Heater (DWH-I) includes HX-3 

o Manufacturer - Ruud 

o Model - Solar Servant 6 Kw 

o Energy source - Electric 

o Tank size - 82 gal 

o Energy input - 20,000 Btu/hr 

o Energy output - 20,000 Btu/hr 

o Maximum pressure rating - 

o Maximum temperature rating - 

o Design operating pressure - 

o Heating stages - 

o Maximum recovery rate - 50 gal per hr 

o Yearly average inlet temperature - 50° F 

o Design output temperature - 140° F 

o Thermal resistance - R-10 

o Standby heat loss - 

o Corrosion protection anodes - 

o Burner ignition method - 

o Flue vent - 
o Control Mode Selector (CMS-3) 

o Modes controlled - Auxiliary hot water heater 

o Sensor - (SN-05) 

Type - Thermostat 
o Heat Pump (HPS- 1 ) 

o Manufacturer - Carrier 

o Model Name/Number - 33BQ003 (outdoor compression) 40GQ004 
(heat pump) 

29 



o Type - Split system, direct expansion 

o Refrigeration fluid - Freon 

o Power source - Electric 

o Manufacturer's rating - Input 4778 Btu/hr, Output 15,017 Btu/hr 

o Demand side, Circulation Loop - Described under loop 4 

o Distribution - Blower (BL- 1) 

Motor size - 1/3 hp, I 15 v, single phase, 60 Hz 

Speed - 3 speed (850, 950, 1050 rpm) 
Control Mode Selector (CMS2) - Refer to Loop 4 
o Modes controlled - Auxiliary heating 



30 



F. Modes of Operation (See Figure IV-F-I) 



COLLECTOR 
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Figure IV-F- 1. Controls Diagram 



The Sir Galahad Company's solar system is shown on Figure IV-F-I. The system 
consists of the following four subs/stems: a) Collector, b) storage, c) load (space 
heating and d) auxiliary loads subsystem. Operation of the solar system and 
auxiliary subsystems may involve one or more of the five modes of operations 
described below. 



31 



Mode I - Collector-to-Storage: 

When the collector temperature control sensor, located in the collector outlet 
manifold, indicates a temperature 17° F greater than the storage temperature 
control sensor, located at the bottom of the storage tank, collector pumps (P-l and 
P-2) are activated and will circulate water through the storage tank and the 
collectors. Collector pump (P-2) continues to run until the collector temperature 
becomes less than 3 F greater than the storage temperature. 

Mode 2 Space Heating-from-Storage: 

Solar energy from storage is used for space heating when there is a demand from 
the space heating thermostat and there is sufficient thermal energy in storage, as 
indicated by the storage tank top temperature, being greater than 90° F. In this 
mode space heating pump (HPS-I) and the Blower (BL-I) in the air distribution 
system are activated. Valves V-6 and V-2 are positioned to allow flow from the 
storage tank through the heating coils of the heat exchanger and back to the 
storage tank. The electric auxiliary heater is disabled in this mode. 

Mode 3 - Auxiliary-Space Heating: 

The auxiliary heating mode is used when there is a demand for space heating from 
the space thermostat and there is not sufficient thermal energy in storage to meet 
the demand. In this mode heat pump (HPS-I) and the blower (BL-I) are activated, 
allowing flow through the heating coils, and the Electric heating strips are enabled 
to provide the required thermal energy, when outdoor temperature is below 36° F. 

Mode 4 - Domestic Hot Water Heating: 

Energy from storage is used to heat domestic hot water when the temperature in 
the DHW heater is below 140° F and is also 15° F less than the storage tank top 
temperature. When both of these conditions are met, pump P-3 is activated, 
circulating water from the DHW heater through a heat exchanger (HX-3) located in 
the storage tank. Auxiliary electric DHW heating occurs if the temperature of the 
hot water in the tank drops below 130° F. 



32 



Mode 5 - Auxiliary Domestic Hot Water Heating: 

This mode is activated directly by DHW-I tank thermostat when the solar energy 
source is not able to maintain water temperature at 140° F or desired setting. 



33 



V. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION INSTRUMENTATION 

A. The National Solar Data Network 

The National Solar Data Network (see figure V-A- 1 ) has been developed for the 
Department of Energy to process data collected from specific residential demon- 
stration sites which were selected for thermal performance evaluation. The data 
flow in the Network includes monthly and seasonal system performance reports 
describing the thermal performance of the solar energy system and subsystems. 

The performance evaluation instrumentation at each selected demonstration site is 
part of a comprehensive data collection system that allows for valid analyses of 
the solar system performance. Collected data are both applicable and practical in 
calculating thermal performance factors that describe the behavior of the solar 
system (see NBSIR 76-1 137), National Bureau of Standards. Additional instrumen- 
tation may also be included as a result of site-specific requirements. Typically, 
the instrumentation includes sensors that monitor the following: 

o Total insolation in the plane of the collector array 

o Ambient temperature 

o Collector subsystem flow rate and temperatures 

o Storage inlet flow rate and temperatures 

o Storage outlet flow rate and temperatures 

o Storage temperature 

o Storage-to-load subsystem flow rate and temperatures 

o Auxiliary fuel flow rates 

Site data are recorded sutomatically at prescribed intervals by the Site Data 
Acquisition System (SDAS). The recorded data are transmitted daily to the 
Communications Processor in the Central Data Processing System (CDPS). The 
communications link between every SDAS and the CDPS consists of voice-grade 
telephone lines and telephone data couplers. A reading is transmitted from the 
SDAS internal timer with every data sample to ensure that the data are time- 
tagged correctly. 



34 




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36 



The Communications Processor scans the receiving data to identify any apparent 
transmission errors and verifies correct site contact by checking the address code 
transmitted by the SDAS. Data is stored temporarily in the Communications 
Processor and processed by the Host Computer. The processing includes measure- 
ment checking to ensure that the data are reasonable; that is, that they are not 
beyond the known instrument limits and that they are not erratic. Data which 
appear questionable are discarded and are not used in the solar system preformance 
analyses. 

Appropriate equations were formulated and programmed to define desired perform- 
ance factors for the solar energy systems at each selected demonstration site. A 
performance factor is a number that describes either the efficiency or the quantity 
of energy lost, gained, or converted by a solar energy system or by a component. 
All vaid data are processed using these performance factor equations to generate 
hourly performance factors. Hourly performance factors are integrated into daily 
and monthly performance factors. These hourly, daily, and monthly performance 
factors are stored in data files in the CDPS. These data files also include 
measurement data, expressed in engineering units; numerical and textual site 
identification; and specific site data used in generating the performance factors. 

B. On-Site Instrumentation 

The on-site instrumentation includes sensors to monitor the various parameters of 
the solar energy system, a junction box, and a Site Data Acquisition System that 
stores and transmits data to the Host Computer (see figure V-A-l and V-A-2). 
Specific information for temperature, flow, power and miscellaneous sensors are 
presented in tabular form. Sensor locations are shown in figure V-B- I . 



37 



SENSOR 



DESCRIPTION OE MEASUREMENT 



MODEL NO. 



1001 Insolation, total 

TOO I Temperature, ambient 

TI00 Temperature, collector inlet 

T I 50 Temperature, collector, high 

WI00 Elow, collector 

EPI00 Power, col lector pump 

T 101 Temperature, heat exch. out 

TI5I Temperature, heat exch. in 

T200 Temperature, storage tank, upper 

T20I Temperature, storage tank, middle 

T202 Temperature, storage tank, lower 

T203 Temperature, storage tank outer surface 

T204 Temperature, storage tank out 

T254 Temperature, storage tank in 

W200 Elow, storage/HX loop 

T400 Temperature, water coil inlet 

T450 Temperature, water coil low 

W400 Flow, water coil 

EP200 Power, heat exch. pump 

T300 Temperature, return from heat exch. 

T30I Temperature, supply to DHW heat exch 

T35I Temperature, DHW heat exch. low 

W300 Elow, DHW heat exch 

EP300 Power, DHW heat exch. pump 

T302 Temperature, cold water supply 

T352 Temperature, DHW tank, high 

W30I Elow totalizer, DHW supply 

EP30I Power, DHW heater 

T303 Temperature, DHW tank, outer surface 

T40I Temperature, return air 

T402 Temperature, heat pump coil, high 

T403 Temperature, electric heater, high 

T404 Temperature, water coil, high 

W40I Elow, heated space 



Eppley PSP 

S53P-60 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

MKV-I'A,, 3-30 GPM 

PC5-I 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

S53P-I56 

S53P-346 

S53P-556 

S32B 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

MKV-I'A,, 3-30 GPM 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

MKV-I, I-I0GPM 

PC5-I 

S53P-60 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

MKV 3/4, 7-7 GPM 

PC5-I 

S57P-60 

S53P-60 

Hersey 430 

PC5-29 

S32B 

S57P-I00 

S57P-I00 

S57P-I00 

S53P-IOO 

Kurz 430DC 



33 



SENSOR DESCRIPTION OF MEASUREMENT MODEL NO. 

W402 Flow, heated space Kurz 430DC 

EP400 Power, indoor heat pump fan PC-2 

EP40I Power, electric heat strip PC5-32 

EP402~ Power, heat pump, outdoorunit PC5-29 

T600 Temperature, building S53P-I00 



39 




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40 



VI. COST DATA 

A. General 

The following cost data depicts only solar energy portion of the construction costs. 
Costs of instrumentation is not included since it is not part of the construction 
effort. 

B. Construction Grant Funds 

Solar Subsys tem Applicants Request Construction Grant 

Collectors $ 4,609 $ 

Energy Storage 1 ,600 

Distribution and Controls 9,077 

Installation 13,650 

Other 7,689 1,064 



Total $36,625 $26,000 

C. Construction Period: February, 1977 through February, 1978 



41 



VII. APPENDIX 

A. Glossary 

ABSORBER PLATE - The surface in a flat plate collector that absorbs incident 
solar radiation and transfers the absorbed energy to a heat transfer fluid. 
ABSORPTANCE - The ratio of absorbed radiation by a surface to the total incident 
radiation on that surface. 

ABSORPTION SUBSYSTEM - The mechanical equipment that conditions indoor air 
by an absorption process. 

ACTIVE SOLAR SYSTEM - An integrated solar energy system, consisting of 
collector, storage, solar energy-to-load subsystems, that can condition indoor air or 
preheat domestic hot water in a controlled manner. 

AIR-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM - A solar energy system in which air is 
the heat transfer fluid. 

AIR CONDITIONING - The process of treating indoor air by controlling the 
temperature, humidity, and distribution to specified comfort settings as set by the 
occupants in the conditioned space. 

AMBIENT AIR - A term for outdoor air, and may be brought into a building to be 
conditioned or circulated. 

ANTI-EREEZE FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM - A freeze protection system that 
uses additives or solutions to the heat transfer medium, which depresses its 
freezing point sufficiently to prevent possible water freeze in the solar collectors 
and the exterior piping. 

AUXILIARY ENERGY SUBSYSTEM - The equipment, utilizing conventional energy 
sources, used to supplement the output provided by a solar energy system and used 
to provide a full backup system when the solar system is inoperable. 
BACKFLOW - The reversal of flow in a distribution system. 
BACKFLOW PREVENTOR - A device or means to stop backflow. 
BEAM RADIATION - Solar radiation which is not scattered and may be con- 
centrated. 
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (Btu) - A unit of energy that is required to heat one 

pound of water from 59 F to 60 ' • 

BUILDING ENVELOPE - The exterior surface of a building that encloses the 

conditioned space. 



kl 



CLIMATE - The prevailing or average weather conditions of a specific geographic 

region as described by temperature and other meteorological data. 

COLLECTOR MANIFOLD - The piping that connects the absorber tubes in a 

collector plate. 

COLLECTOR PLATE - A term used for an absorber plate. 

COLLECTOR SUBSYSTEM - The assembly that absorbes solar radiation and 

transfers the absorbed thermal energy to a heat transfer fluid. 

COMBINED COLLECTORS - An assembly that both collects solar radiation and 

stores the thermal energy in the same unit. 

CONCENTRATING SOLAR COLLECTOR - A solar collector which focuses beam 

radiation onto an absorber in order to obtain higher energy fluxes than can 

normally be achieved by flat plate solar collectors. 

CONCENTRATOR - A reflective surface or refracting lens used in directing 

insolation onto an absorber. 

CONDITIONED SPACE - The space in a building where the air is conditioned by 

heating or cooling. 

CONTROL SUBSYSTEM - The assembly of electric, pneumatic, and hydraulic 

actuated sensing devices used in regulating the solar energy system and the 

auxiliary energy subsystems. 

COOLING TOWER - A heat exchanger that transfers waste heat from an 

absorption cooling system to ambient air. 

DIFFUSE RADIATION - Solar radiation which is scattered by air molecules, dust, 

or other substances suspended in the air. 

DRAIN-DOWN FREEZE PROTECTION SYSTEM - A freeze protection system that 

prevents potential water freeze-up within the collector and exterior piping by 

automatically draining and replacing the water with a non-freezing medium such as 

air, nitrogen, etc. 

DUCT HEATING COIL - A liquid-to-air heat exchanger in the duct distribution 

system used to heat air by passing a hot fluid through a coil in the air system. 

EQUIVALENT FULL LOAD COOLING HOURS - The seasonal cooling load for a 

building described as the total number of hours that the air conditioning system 

will operate under full load conditions to meet the required cooling load. 

EMITTANCE - The ratio of energy radiated by a body to the energy radiated by a 

black body at the same temperature. 

EXPANSION TANK - A tank which will permit water to expand whenever it is 

heated to prevent excessive pressures on the other system components. 



43 



FIXED COLLECTOR - A solar collector that is permanently oriented towards the 

sun and cannot track the sun nor be adjusted for seasonal variations. 

FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR - A basic heat collection device used in solar heating 

systems, which consists of an absorber plate, with insulated bottom and sides, and 

covered by one or more transparent covers. There are no concentrators or focusing 

aids in a flat plate collector. 

FOCUSING COLLECTOR - A solar collector using a parabolic mirror, fresnel lens, 

or other type of focusing device to concentrate solar radiation onto an absorber. 

FRESNEL COLLECTOR - A concentrating solar collector which uses a fresnel lens 

to focus beam radiation onto an absorber. 

GLAZING - The transparent cover(s) on a solar collector used to reduce the energy 

losses from the top of the col lector. 

HEAT TRANSFER FLUID - The fluid that transfers solar energy from the solar 

collector to the storage subsystem or to the load. 

INCIDENCE ANGLE - The angle in which the insolation strikes a surface and the 

normal for that surface. 

INSOLATION - The total amount of solar radiation on a surface in a given unit of 

time. 

LAMINATED GLASS - A glazing consisting of multiple glass sheets bonded 

together by intervening layer or layers of plastic. 

LANGLEY - The standard unit of insolation defined as I langley = I cal/cm^ (| 

Langley = 3.69 Btu/ft 2 ). 

LIQUID-BASED SOLAR COLLECTOR SYSTEM - A solar energy system in which 

either water or an antifreeze solution is the heat transfer fluid. 

LOAD - The total space conditioning or domestic water heating reguirements that 

are supplied by both the solar energy system and the auxiliary energy subsystem. 

NOCTURNAL RADIATION - The loss of thermal energy by the solar collectors to 

the sky at night. 

NO-FLOW CONDITION - The condition obtained when the heat transfer fluid is not 

flowing through the collector array due to a shutdown or a malfunction. 

OPAQUE - A surface that is not transparent, thus solar radiation is either 

reflected or absorbed. 

OUTGASSING - The emission of gases by materials and components, usually during 

exposure to elevated temperature, or reduced pressure. 



44 



PACKAGE AIR-CONDITION, \JG UN.T - A factory-made assembly consisting of an 
indoor coil, a compressor, an outdoor coil, and other components needed for space 
cooling operations. This unit may also include additional components to heat the 
condition space. 

PARA30LIC FOCUSING COLLECTOR - A concentrating collector which focuses 
beam radiation by a parabolic reflector. 

PASSIVE SOLAR SYSTEM - An integrated solar energy system that can provide for 
space heating needs without the use of any other energy source other than the sun. 
REFLECTANCE - The ratio of radiation reflected by a surface to the total 
incident radiation on the surface. 

REFLECTED RADIATION - Insolation which is reflected from a surface, such as 
the ground,, and is incident on the solar collector. 

ROCK. BED - A storage tank using uniform-sized rocks to store solar energy in air- 
based solar collector systems. 

SELECTIVE SURFACE - A surface which has a high absorptance for solar radiation 
aimd a low emittance for thermal radiation. 

SOLAR CONDITIONED SPACE - The area in a building that depends on solar 
energy to provide for a fraction of the heating and cooling needs. 
SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM - An integrated assembly of collector, storage, solar 
energy-to-load, and control subsystems required to convert solar energy into 
thermal energy for space heating requirements, as well as the addition of an 
auxiliary backup system. 

SOLAR RETROFIT - The addition of a solar energy system to an existing structure. 
STORAGE SUBSYSTEM - The components used to store solar energy so that the 
stored energy can be used for heating, cooling, or heating water during periods of 
low insolation. 

STRATIFICATION - The horizontal layering in a medium due to temperature 
differentials, commonly noticed in storage tanks filled with water. 
THERMOSTAT - A temperature sensing device which controls the heating and 
cooling systems for space conditioning or the hot water heater. 

TILT ANGLE FROM HORIZONTAL - Angle between the horizontal plane and the 
plane of collector. 

TON OF REFRIGERATION - A unit of refrigeration which is equivalent to 12,000 
Btu/hr. 

TRACKING COLLECTOR - A set of solar energy tracking collectors that auto- 
matically move in order to constantly aim towards the sun. 



45 



VAPOR BARRIER - A material which is used to reduce the transmission of water 

vapor. 

ZONE - A portion of a conditioned space which use a common control because of 

their similar heating and cooling requirements. 



46 



B. Legend For Solar System Schematics 



VALVES 



PIPING SPECIALITIES 




T$^ 



i*3 



* 



-fr«3- 



GATE VALVE 
CHECK VALVE 
BALANCING VALVE 

GLOBE VALVE 
BALL VALVE 
PLUG VALVE 
BACKFLOW PREVENTER 
VACUUM BREAKER 
RELIEF OR SAFETY 
PRESSURE REDUCING 

ANGLE GATE VALVE 

ANGLE GLOVE VALVE 
CONTROL VALVE. 2 WAY 

CONTROL VALVE. 3 WAY 
BUTTERFLY VALVE 




4 WAY VALVE 
FITTINGS 



-II- 






DIRECTION OF FLOW 

CAP 

REDUCER. CONCENTRIC 

REDUCER. ECCENTRIC 

TEE 

UNION 

FLANGED CONNECTION 

CONNECTION. BOTTOM 
CONNECTION, TOP 
ELBOW, TURNED UP 

ELBOW. TURNED DOWN 
TEE, OUTLET UP 

TEE, OUTLET DOWN 



■a 



EJ 




+9* 



$ 



i 



•ip 



cw> 



<g 



AS 

EXPTK 
WS 
HED 



AUTOMATIC AIR VENT 
MANUAL AIR VENT 
ALIGNMENT GUIDE 

ANCHOR 
BALL JOINT 

EXPANSION JOINT 
EXPANSION LOOP 
FLEXIBLE CONNECTION 

FLOWMETER FITTING 
FLOW SWITCH 

PRESSURE SWITCH 

PRESSURE GAUGE 
PUMP 

PIPE SLOPE 

STRAINER 

STRAINER, W/BLOW OFF 

TRAP 

CONTROL SENSOR 

INSTRUMENTATION SENSOR 

THERMOMETER 
THERMOMETER WELL ONLY 

COLD WATER SUPPLY 

BLOWER 

AIR SEPARATOR 

EXPANSION TANK 

WATER SOFTENER 

HOSE END DRAIN 



47 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



3 1262 09052 6350